Koba, El Temible: La Risa Y Los Veinte Millones — Martin Amis / Koba the Dread: Laughter and the Twenty Million by Martin Amis

Tras la muerte de Lenin en 1924, Stalin se va haciendo poco a poco con el poder absoluto en la Unión Soviética. Es nombrado Secretario General de PCUS (1922-1952), Presidente del Consejo de Ministros (1941-1953) y Ministro de Defensa (1941-1946) abarcando y controlando todos los puestos de mando claves del país. Como un perfecto monarca absolutista de todas las Rusias gobernó con mano dura durante treinta años, su megalomanía y sadismo paranoico no tuvieron límites llegando a deportar u ordenar la ejecución de muchos de sus cercanos colaboradores y sus respectivas familias. Sin un ápice de conciencia y sin que le temblara el pulso mando a la muerte segura a más de veinte millones de infelices con los planes de Colectivización e Industrialización forzosa destruyendo la estructura social del país conocida hasta entonces. Apoyando en los servicios represivos de la Checa, las denuncias anónimas y la abolición de las libertades civiles neutralizó o eliminó a la inteligencia nacional, con la implantación del terror fue silenciando sistemáticamente a la supuesta oposición interna mediante el asesinato, “los accidentes o muertes naturales”, las confesiones forzosas y las deportaciones en masa a los gulags siberianos de los que volvían muy pocos en una pieza provocando una supervivencia civil silenciosa que marcaría a la sociedad soviética por generaciones y la llevaría a la decadencia absoluta. Anciano ya, la muerte le sorprendió planificando nuevos pogroms paranoicos que afortunadamente no se llevaron a la práctica.
Crónica directa, absolutamente cruel y fría sobre la obra política, la psiquis y personalidad de Iósif Vissariónovich Stalin (1878-1953). Hombre cruel, sádico y sin escrúpulos que gobernó con mano dura la URSS por tres décadas, creador de un estado policial terrorífico que masacró, esclavizó y torturó física y mentalmente con total impunidad a millones de inocentes para saciar su sed de sangre y poder. en nombre de una ideología utópica absurda fracasada desde su puesta en práctica que solo se sostuvo mediante el terror psicológico y físico, una total falta de libertad de acción y expresión, una miseria generalizada, una inseguridad ciudadana latente y un estancamiento de todos los sectores del país. Una lectura conmovedora que aporta un poco más de luz sobre el oscuro reino del sátrapa georgiano en la Unión Soviética.

“Koba” es un “encuentro del autor” conmovedor, conciso y bien escrito con la literatura primaria de los años de Lenin y Stalin.
Si Amis no hubiera personalizado la narrativa y también intentado convertirla en un esfuerzo literario, podría haber sido una recitación letal y aburrida de un período de horror. Afortunadamente, él escribe no solo sobre los hechos históricos, sino también sobre lo que es para una persona moderna aprender acerca de estos eventos, y compara la tragedia a gran escala con eventos relevantes en su propia vida. Él también saca muchas conclusiones perceptivas.
Por ejemplo, sugiere que es socialmente aceptable reírse del estalinismo pero no del nazismo. La razón de esto, argumenta, no es la mera brecha entre la propaganda y la realidad (un problema para cualquier gobierno, según parece), sino la oposición perfecta de la propaganda estalinista y la realidad soviética. Los nazis fueron, en gran medida, francos acerca de lo que era el mal que estaban tratando de cometer. Stalin reclamaba el triunfo de un paraíso de los trabajadores (el ideal elevado del comunismo), mientras que al mismo tiempo hacía todo lo posible para destruir la solidaridad humana a fin de mantener y aumentar su propio poder (el vértice triunfante de los reaccionarios de poca cultura). Amis lo llama “perfección negativa”. Es difícil no tener una risa irónica, aunque en plena solidaridad, con los ciudadanos a quienes les dicen que la utopía finalmente ha llegado mientras sus hijos mueren de hambre. El horror hace que todas las porristas se vuelvan risibles al instante, o demasiado absurdas como para merecer incluso una burla.
Pero esto no quiere decir que a “Koba” le falte materia fáctica. De hecho, es sobre todo un texto de historia, con tantos nombres y fechas y eventos específicos como la mayoría de los lectores podría desear. Afortunadamente para nosotros, Amis no lo deja allí, sino que también proporciona comentarios irónicos y penetrantes, y las historias y los acontecimientos de su propia vida que resuenan con la gran narrativa.
Si no sabes mucho sobre esta pieza central de la historia del siglo XX, la encuesta de Amis podría ser el mejor lugar disponible para comenzar a aprender, y creo que sus reflexiones profundas, su estilo elevado aunque fluido y enérgico, y su cuidado meticuloso el idioma inglés es muy impresionante.

After the death of Lenin in 1924, Stalin is gradually becoming absolute power in the Soviet Union. He is appointed Secretary General of PCUS (1922-1952), President of the Council of Ministers (1941-1953) and Minister of Defense (1941-1946), covering and controlling all the key command posts in the country. As a perfect absolutist monarch of all the Russias he ruled with a heavy hand for thirty years, his megalomania and paranoid sadism had no limits, coming to deport or order the execution of many of his close collaborators and their respective families. Without an iota of conscience and without trembling the pulse sent to the sure death to more than twenty million unhappy with the plans of Colectivization and forced Industrialization destroying the social structure of the country known until then. Supporting the repressive services of the Czech, the anonymous denunciations and the abolition of the civil liberties neutralized or eliminated the national intelligence, with the implantation of the terror was systematically silencing the supposed internal opposition through the murder, “the accidents or natural deaths “, forced confessions and deportations en masse to the Siberian gulags of those who returned very few in one piece provoking a silent civilian survival that would mark the Soviet society for generations and lead to absolute decadence. Elderly already, death surprised him by planning new paranoid pogroms that fortunately were not put into practice.
Direct chronicle, absolutely cruel and cold on the political work, the psyche and personality of Iósif Vissariónovich Stalin (1878-1953). Cruel, sadistic and unscrupulous man who ruled with a heavy hand the USSR for three decades, creator of a terrifying police state that massacred, enslaved and tortured physically and mentally with total impunity millions of innocents to quench their thirst for blood and power. in the name of an absurd utopian ideology failed since its implementation that was only sustained through psychological and physical terror, a total lack of freedom of action and expression, a generalized misery, a latent citizen insecurity and a stagnation of all sectors of the population. country. A moving reading that brings a little more light on the dark realm of the Georgian satrap in the Soviet Union.

Para mí de lo mejor del autor, releído varías veces.

After the death of Lenin in 1924, Stalin is gradually becoming absolute power in the Soviet Union. He is appointed Secretary General of PCUS (1922-1952), President of the Council of Ministers (1941-1953) and Minister of Defense (1941-1946), covering and controlling all the key command posts in the country. As a perfect absolutist monarch of all the Russias he ruled with a heavy hand for thirty years, his megalomania and paranoid sadism had no limits, coming to deport or order the execution of many of his close collaborators and their respective families. Without an iota of conscience and without trembling the pulse sent to the sure death to more than twenty million unhappy with the plans of Colectivization and forced Industrialization destroying the social structure of the country known until then. Supporting the repressive services of the Czech, the anonymous denunciations and the abolition of the civil liberties neutralized or eliminated the national intelligence, with the implantation of the terror was systematically silencing the supposed internal opposition through the murder, “the accidents or natural deaths “, forced confessions and deportations en masse to the Siberian gulags of those who returned very few in one piece provoking a silent civilian survival that would mark the Soviet society for generations and lead to absolute decadence. Elderly already, death surprised him by planning new paranoid pogroms that fortunately were not put into practice.
Direct chronicle, absolutely cruel and cold on the political work, the psyche and personality of Iósif Vissariónovich Stalin (1878-1953). Cruel, sadistic and unscrupulous man who ruled with a heavy hand the USSR for three decades, creator of a terrifying police state that massacred, enslaved and tortured physically and mentally with total impunity millions of innocents to quench their thirst for blood and power. in the name of an absurd utopian ideology failed since its implementation that was only sustained through psychological and physical terror, a total lack of freedom of action and expression, a generalized misery, a latent citizen insecurity and a stagnation of all sectors of the population. country. A moving reading that brings a little more light on the dark realm of the Georgian satrap in the Soviet Union.

“Koba” is an affecting, concise, and well-written “author’s encounter” with the primary literature of the Lenin and Stalin years.
If Amis had not personalized the narrative and also attempted to make it a literary effort, it could have been a deadly dull recitation of a period of horror. Fortunately, he writes about not just the historical facts, but also about what it is for a modern person to learn about these events, and compares the large-scale tragedy to relevant events in his own life. He also draws many perceptive conclusions.
For example, he suggests that it’s socially acceptable to laugh at Stalinism but not at Nazism. The reason for this, he argues, is not the mere gap between propoganda and reality (a problem for any government, it seems), but the perfect opposition of Stalinist propoganda and Soviet reality. The Nazis were, to a large extent, candid about what the evil was that they were trying to commit. Stalin was claiming the triumph of a workers’ paradise (the high-minded ideal of Communism), while at the same time very intentionally doing everything possible to destroy human solidarity in order to maintain and increase his own power (the triumphant apex of the reactionary low-brow). Amis calls it “negative perfection”. It’s hard not to have an ironic laugh, though in full solidarity, with citizens who are told that utopia has finally arrived while their children are starving to death. The horror makes all the cheerleading instantly risible, or too absurd perhaps to deserve even a jeer.
But this is not to say that “Koba” lacks for factual matter. In fact it is above all a history text, with as many names and dates and specific events as most readers could possibly desire. It is simply fortunate for us that Amis doesn’t leave it there, but also provides ironic, penetrating commentary, and stories and events from his own life that resonate with the grand narrative.
If you don’t know much about this core piece of 20th Century history, Amis’s survey could be the best available place to start learning, and I think that his thoughtful insights, high-minded though fluid and energetically terse style, and meticulous care for the English language are all very impressive.

To my way of thinking the best of the author and I reread several times.

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